Knowledge of the human auditory evoked response is reviewed, including methods of determining this response, the way particular changes in the stimulus are coupled to specific changes in the response, and how the state of mind of the listener will influence the response. Important practical applications of this basic knowledge are discussed. Measurement of the brainstem evoked response, for instance, can state unequivocally how well the peripheral auditory apparatus functions. It might then be developed into a useful hearing test, especially for infants and preverbal or nonverbal children. Clinical applications of measuring the brain waves evoked 100 msec and later after the auditory stimulus are undetermined. These waves are clearly related to brain events associated with cognitive processing of acoustic signals, since their properties depend upon where the listener directs his attention and whether how long he expects the signal.